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Table 3

Characteristics of products improving muscle performance (in order of appearance in the text).

Patent Main effects Author(s) and year
Nutritional composition A combination of amino acids (carnitine, glutamine, isoleucine, leucine and valine) provide diet supplements which employ branched amino acids (BAA) to promote muscle adaptation to strenuous exercise Brantman (1987)
Dietary supplement The reducing the symptoms of stress and improving performance by causing a reduction in the level of cytokines and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) Bell et al. (2001)
Sports drink composition The optimizing muscle performance and extending endurance during exercise and preventing free radical buildup and muscle damage after exercise. Portman (2002, 2003, 2006, 2010)
Sports beverage The optimizing muscle performance during exercise Constantine et al. (2009)
Beverage for sports people The muscle wound healing and elimination of fat Fu et al. (2017)
Food supplement for increasing lean mass and strength The increase of nitric oxide production in the body, which plays an essential role in tonic and exercise-associated regulation of vasodilation and blood flow Gardiner et al. (2004, 2010)
Composition and method for effective lean body mass gain The invention provides methods for increasing lean body mass comprising administering a composition comprising effective amounts effective amounts of serum protein isolate, microfiltered whey protein concentrate, and whey protein isolate Weaver (2007)
Charged nutritive proteins The increase of muscle mass and strength Berry et al. (2014, , 2017)
Phosphatidylserine-containing muscle development diet supplement The suppression of the damaging release of excess levels of cortisol due to physical stress. Fritz (2004)
Protein beverage The branched chain amino acids metabolized directly into muscle tissue are the first amino acids used during periods of exercise and resistance training Jenkins (2015)
Muscle-building agent The increase of weight of the abdominal muscles and the musculus quadriceps Naito & Miura (2011)
Confectionary used for supplementing protein The soybean protein is effective for the health of athletes or sport amateurs aiming at reinforcement and restoration of muscles. Sagiya (2012)
Food supplement The invention relates to a food supplement, containing cartilage supplements such as chondroitin sulfate, glucosamine sulfate, and hyaluronic acid Stone (2002)
High-protein food of plate form The invention might be an aid for strengthening the muscles for athletes, weight reduction for obese persons, supplying nutrition to postoperative patients, improving nutritional balance of diets, and the like Ariga et al. (2000, 2001)
Sports beverage The invention shorts the time of physical recovery time, and enabling protection of myocardium, bone and muscle from injury Qiu (2018)
Organic vegan protein shaker A predominantly protein-based drink or shake is suitable to the professional athletes and body builders because it enables to achieve a net positive gain in muscle mass Smith (2012)

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